Development History of Refrigerant


Refrigerant is the working fluid in air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. It circulates in the system of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment, and constantly exchanges energy with the outside world through the cycling change of its own thermodynamic state to achieve the purpose of refrigeration. In practice, it is also called refrigerant as refrigerating medium or working medium for short. Only substances that vaporize and condense at operating temperatures are likely to be used as refrigerants.

How did refrigerants develop?

Ether was the first refrigerant used in 1834. Its disadvantage was that it was flammable and explosive, and the evaporation pressure was lower than atmospheric pressure when it was extracted at a low temperature.

In 1866, wilderhausen proposed the use of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant.

In 1870 carlinde used ammonia as a refrigerant.

In 1874, raoul used sulfur dioxide as a refrigerant in pickett’s eyes.

Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide in history as a more important refrigerants, sulfur dioxide is toxic, but as an important refrigerant already has 60 years of history, carbon dioxide in the use of high temperature range of pressure and the refrigeration compressor structure design is very heavy, but it is non-toxic, the use of safe, once as a refrigerant in the Marine refrigeration device for 50 years, replaced by freon in 1955.In recent years, carbon dioxide has a good thermal performance and environmental protection characteristics of the people’s attention again.

Azeotropic refrigerants were introduced in the 1950s.

Nonazeotropic refrigerants were used in the 1960s.

In the 1980s, scientists confirmed that CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are harmful substances that cause ozone layer destruction and greenhouse effect, and began the work of limiting and replacing CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons). At present, the most promising alternative to refrigerants are HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) found in freon.

In general, the development of refrigerants has gone through the following three stages:

Stage 1 (1830-1930) : It mainly USES ammonia, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and water as refrigerants. Some of them are poisonous, some are flammable, and some are inefficient. They have been used for about 100 years.

Stage 2 (1930-1990) : CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) refrigerants were used for about 60 years.

Stage 3 (1990 to present): Enter the period dominated by HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons).


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